short notes on poverty,inequalities,absolutive and relative
Poverty is something which one can relate to “lack”.One of the great ecologist R H. Tawney also explains social inequality led to extremes of both wealth and poverty and both were dehumanizing and has compared poverty with inequality.
On studying and visualizing inequality from sociological point of view; inequalities can be classified into various categories:-
- Inequality of income
- health inequalities
- educational inequalities
- inequality of educational opportunity.
Sociologist visualize poverty and has categorized poverty in following way:-
- Absolute poverty.
- Relative poverty.
Census and study of poverty, by the sociologist, shows that nearly 1/2 of the world’s population is merged under a load of poverty. This includes a country like Bangladesh, Zambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Nigeria and also India’s 22% of the country’s population is suffering from poverty. Conditions of life in the developed countries are very different from those in developing countries.
A solution to any problems can be searched and can be applied also, only when its root can be reached and understood. Theories which can explain reasons for poverty are grouped by some sociologist in two categories
- Theories considering individual as responsible
- Theories considering society as responsible, for poverty of individual
One of the sociologists Charles Murray asked individuals to take personal responsibility for their poverty. Murray explained the reasons and real-essence behind the schemes started by the government for the welfare and improvement of poor. He makes two categories of individuals, one of them is who must take personal responsibility for their poverty and second are those who are poor because they are not self-capable enough for earning, such as widows, orphans or people who are disabled.
In Britain, Will Hutton a famous sociologist explained a new theory of ‘thirty, thirty, forty’ society in the analysis of the UK. It explains processes of economic restructuring creating a new division within the population.
In this theory, he divides the population, on the basis of the level of their income. Here, 30% highlights the population, which is earning the poorest salary. They neither have the minimum education which is required by most of the industries in order to hire a person nor they are physically abled enough, to earn from a work which includes physically hard work or labor work.
Another 30% shows, the middle-class person, their income levels remain low and the jobs were relatively insecure. Finally, around 40% who are educated enough for getting employed in industries privileged are in full-time employment. The category of the people which are a business man and have sufficient capital so that it can be invested in their businessman is also placed in this category by this ecologist.
The majority of this group is not rich, but their employment is more secure and their income tends to be higher; compared to the other two groups, therefore, they are relatively advantaged.
Many countries have an official measurement of poverty: a poverty line. This is a salary below which if a person is earning then he is considered as below-poverty-line. The minimum wage which is accepted internationally is $2 per day.