The two terms equality and inequality, according to Andre Beteille holds a very significant position in society of the modern world. In political ideology, the two principles of socialism and democracy on a whole are regarded as the ideology of equality constructed for human beings and also has a universal character.
The Two Sources of Inequality
On the other hand, inequality has its deep roots in human societies, which is created by human social behavior. Inequality is more of the technical problem of social reality but can be seen from the naked eye and a problem which is to be studied by a sociologist, for example, Industrialization in western societies apart from its advancement, it created ill effects that of inequality.
There is also a difference between the advanced societies and backward societies, that is societies which are advanced are advanced both economically and ideologically, and societies which are backward that is the third world countries, have traditional and cultural ideologies where inequalities emerge as a result of old ways and conservative conception.
The two types of inequalities are first which is natural that is a man is naturally superior to that of an animal, this is natural inequality, second is inequality which is created by human behavior, or which is social, that is hierarchical differences based on caste, class etc.
According to Rousseau, these physical or natural inequalities (age, health body) have less importance what matters is the social and moral inequalities that of wealth, power and prestige. Differences become inequalities when it has social character and is social in nature. There are comparative studies to understand inequalities.
Collective representations, a term coined by Durkheim, means that people of the same society share ideas , beliefs and values which are collective that is shared in common, which further means that every society has its own collective representations which differ from one society to another, which leads to evaluation of society and a source of inequality.
The second source of inequality is considered an organization, which involves force, power, and domination. This usually involves power and domination among men, mainly that of superordination and subordination. The more the organized system is, the more will be the chances of inequalities. For example, the division of labor in industrial societies highly organized resulted in a violation of human rights and led to inequalities.
Hence the two sources of inequality are evaluation and organization, where one is deeply rooted in the culture and tradition and the other is manifested in power and domination. Power and status also play an important role in the organization source of inequality.