“Feminism is not about making women stronger.Women are already strong. It is about changing the way the world perceives that strength”. – G.D. ANDERSON
WHAT IS FEMINISM?
It is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining ,establishing, and defending equal economic , political and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. Feminists believe that the power structure of male domination with persistent social practices and institutions are responsible for the marginalized position of women. So they fight for securing equal rights to women . That does not mean that they were anti-men.
The history of modern western feminist movements is dived into three waves./aspects of following:
This movement occurred between 1860-1920 against Urban industrialism. This is based on liberal socialist principles. And mainly focused on securing political and legal rights.
This wave is also termed as socialist Marxist feminism, that occurred between 1960-1990 and emerged mainly in response to unfolding of anti-Vietnam war and civil rights movements.
It evolved in response to the post- colonial and post- modern living.
Focused mainly on moderate and conservative ideals.
Main focus areas are to remove discrimination in workplace, security, reproductive rights, Right to abortion etc
The focus was on individual identity with less focus on law and the political process.
Examples :Germanys guarantee of right to vote for women, the acceptance of female students into the Peking university ( CHINA)
The major that happened are the formation of The American Radical organisation Redstockings beginning of the second wave in Muslim countries as well
Forming of the fourth world conference on women in China, violence against women act law to passage in the US can be termed as examples.
FEMINIST IDEOLOGIES AND DISCOURSES:
There were different feminist ideologies like liberal feminism, radical feminism, conservative feminism, Lesbian feminism, Marxist feminism etc
In the same way, there were different discourses on feminist discourses like
1. SEX INDUSTRY:
Options in the sex industry are diverse. Feminists are either critical of it seeing it as exploitative, a result of patriarchal social structures and reinforcing sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment or supportive of at least parts of it arguing that some forms of it can be a medium of feminist expression and a means of women taking control over their sexuality.
feminism against sex-positive The feminist sex wars is a term for acrimonious within the feminist movement in the late1970 s through the 1980s around the issues of it, sexuality, sexual representation, pornography the role of trans women in the lesbian community and other sexual issues. The debate pitted anti- pornography feminism and part of the feminist movement were deeply divided by these debates.
It is a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization and where fathers hold authority over women , children, property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege and is dependent on female subordination.
Reactions to feminism:
There evolved different reactions to feminism like PRO-FEMINISM, ANTI – FEMINISM, HERSTORY. It is hated because women are hated. Anti-feminism is a direct expression of misogyny. It is the political defense of women hating.
You cannot marginalize half of the globe’s population and expect to see any meaningful solutions to the problems that ail the world