The term juvenile delinquency applies to violation of criminal code and certain patterns of behavior that are not approved for children and young adolescents. Juvenile delinquency involves wrong doing by a child or a young person who is under an age specified by the law. Juvenile delinquent is a person who is below 16 years in case of boys and 18 years in case of girls who indulge themselves in antisocial activities. It may be grouped as individual delinquency.
(in which only one individual is involved and the cause of delinquent act is traced to individual delinquent), group supported delinquency (committed in companionship and the cause is attributed not to the personality of the individuals but to the culture of the individual’s home and neighborhood), organized delinquency and situational delinquency (Sharma,Sangeet,Bano,2009). Sociological theories of juvenile delinquency put emphasis on the environment, social structures and the learning process. However, it is generally agreed that a number of factors that play an important part in a youngster’s delinquent behavior can be divided into two groups, individual factors and situational factors (Sharma,2009).
However, it is generally agreed that a number of factors that play an important part in a youngster’s delinquent behavior can be divided into two groups, individual factors and situational factors (Sharma,Dhillion,2009). Just as the causal factors of delinquency are diverse and numerous, so are the definitions. Sociologists define deviance as any behavior that members of a social group define as violating their norms. This concept applies both to criminal acts of deviance as well as to non-criminal acts that members of a group view as unethical, immoral, peculiar, sick, or otherwise outside the bounds of respectability (Sharma, Dhillon, 2001). In India, the concept of delinquent behavior is confined to the violation of the ordinary Penal Laws of Country carried out by boys or girls up to the age of eighteen years. State laws prohibit two types of behavior for juveniles: the first includes behavior, which is criminal for adults, as for example, murder, rape, fraud, burglary, robbery, etc. and the second includes status offenses like running away from home, unruly or ungovernable truancy, etc. The distinctive role of children and adolescents in Indian families and their interdependency with the family members tends to last much longer compared to many other developed countries (Madan, 1990; Simhadri, 1989). Parents play the primary role in socializing their children in India (Gupta, 1987; Shukla, 1994). Indian adolescents are faced with various problems such as juvenile delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, illiteracy, school dropout, low educational attainment, and family violence (Agarwal, 1989; Parikh & Krishna, 1992; Sarkar, 1988). Among adolescents, early adolescence (ages 10-15) has been associated with higher levels of conflict with parents (Poduthase,2012), and adolescent-parent relationships may be transformed dramatically during this period Furthermore, research has found that conflicting quality of parent-adolescent relationships leads to adolescent maladjustment. Adolescent deviant behavior from the social norms is also associated with parents’ relationship with adolescents. In a study conducted by (Poduthase, 2012) they identified three major factors of family process. They are parental guidance, parental involvement and parental attachment that have effects on delinquent behavior.
In this study, parent adolescent relationships are attempted to be explored from the perspective of adolescence. The present study wants to explore parent adolescent attachment; adolescent’s views towards parental guidance; adolescent perception about parental control; and the type of communication between the adolescent and the parent from a relationship perspective.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE : DELINQUENCY AND PARENTAL ROLE
Delinquency is a universal problem and it is seen all over the world without exceptions to any specific cultures or religions. Generally, delinquency refers to illegal acts, whether criminal or not, committed by youth under the age of 18. The term juvenile delinquency was officially developed in the United States in 1899, when the first code of juvenile delinquency was enacted in Chicago, Illinois (Shoemaker 2005). The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines a delinquent act as “conduct that is out of accord with accepted behavior or the law” (Merriam-Webster 2006).
A family may influence a person’s behavior either negatively or positively both at childhood and adulthood. An intact family can be said to be a functioning union between a mother and a father, so when a break up exist, the turmoil may affect a child to a greater extent. A functioning family is beneficial to a child than a dysfunctional one (Kimani, 2010). Family separation was a great contributor of child neglect which generally leads to child deviant behavior. For example, leaving homes and addicted to vices and the like from parental and family neglect, lack of supervision and guidance. If delinquent behavior is viewed from a behavior disorder perspective, it encompasses two broad dimensions: internalizing and externalizing. Internalizing disorders are directed inward and involve behavioral deficits, such as withdrawal, isolation, and depression. On the other hand, externalizing disorders are directed outward and involve behavioral excesses, such as disturbing others verbal and physical aggression, and acts of violence (Rao, 2013).
For many young people today, traditional patterns guiding the relationships and transitions between family, school and work are being challenged. Social relations that ensure a smooth process of socialization are collapsing; lifestyle trajectories are becoming more varied and less predictable. The restructuring of the labor market, the extension of the maturity gap (the period of dependence of young adults on the family) and, arguably, the more limited opportunities to become an independent adult are all changes influencing relationships with family and friends, educational opportunities and choices, labour market participation, leisure activities and lifestyles. (World Youth Report, 2003)
In many cultures, the family has been seen as the central socializing institution responsible for instilling in youth a set of norms, values, beliefs, and ideals (Loury, 1987). The failure of families to accomplish this task may result in serious consequences for the individual as well as for the society at large (Patchin, 2006). Beginning from the 1950s, researchers have examined the relationship between families and delinquency. With respect to parental involvement, some studies show that more time spent with parents leads to less participation in crime and delinquency (Sheldon and Glueck, 1950, 1962).
The more leisure time that an adolescent spends with parents, the less likely the adolescent is to deviate. Many children who experience a divorce or are otherwise in nontraditional families may not be as close to their parents as children in two biological parent families. They may experience weakened bonds with their parents and others, thus increasing the likelihood that they will engage in crime and delinquency (Matsueda & Heimer, 1987). If a child lives in a non traditional family structure, this can impact the four elements of the bond. Hirschi suggested that inadequate families fail to provide the attachments that could leverage children into socialized lifestyles (Hirschi, 1969). If a child is brought up in a broken home, the child is going to have a hard time socially and this may cause the child to turn to deviant acts
In India, crimes are generally classified into two categories: crimes that come under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and crimes that come under Special and Local Laws (SLL). The Indian Penal Code Act of 1860 is the act under which all the substantive aspects of criminal laws are incorporated. This act has been amended several times. All crimes that come under other laws are generally termed as SLL. Even though juvenile crimes contribute only 1% of the total share of crimes in India, this adolescent behaviour cannot be neglected as the delinquent behaviour of adolescents has increased at a much higher rate from 2000 to 2007 and showed only a slight decrease between 2007 and 2010 (Crime in India, 2010). From 1953 to 2000, delinquent behaviour contributed only a 0.05% share of the national crime rate.
However, this rate increased significantly to 1.1% within a span of 7 years and then declined to 1% in 2010. It is pertinent to mention that a juvenile and five others were arrested by Delhi Police for brutally raping and assaulting a 23-year-old girl in the national capital on December 16, 2012. The victim later succumbed to her injuries. The anti-social behaviour may be a part of growing up or the beginning up of a long-term pattern of the criminal activity. The peer groups play an important in the construction of delinquent behaviour. A child is a part of society in which he lives and due to his immaturity, he is easily motivated by what he sees around him. It is his environment and social context that provokes his actions. It is also seen that children in urban and semi-urban areas who belong to middle class families are found more prone to crimes such as theft, rape, and murder and this happens because there is an absence of proper environment both within a family as well as in a community level. In such situation parents fail to give a proper guidance (Sahmey, 2013).
Gupta (1995) states that there should be a good relationship between the mother and the child so that the child will not develop mistrust and anger. If a child develops anger and mistrust then hat child becomes a child without a conscience and behaves in an anti-social manner. Chowdhury (2004) maintain that there are two extreme hypotheses which specify the different roles of peers in developing the aggressive and antisocial behavior of a delinquent child, and there are some individual characteristics which give rise to delinquency. Family is important throughout the period of early adolescence. During early adolescence, developmental transformations are likely to result in changes in adolescents’ needs within the family (Pandey & Negi, 1995). Controlling parents and adolescents who strive for more independence are likely to clash with one another. In this context, parental influence among adolescents is mostly seen as a matter of concern. Researchers agree that “bad” parenting is very much a compelling cause for delinquent behavior (Shah, Sukhla & Trivedi, 1994). Glueck and Glueck (1962) reported that parents who demonstrate extreme restlessness and destructiveness are more likely to play the part of antecedent to delinquency in their teenagers.
When considering the development of an adolescent, the quality of parent-adolescent relationships is vital. In a study by Chao (2001), the closeness of parent-adolescent relationships explained the beneficial effect of authoritative control. Yet another study by Dekovic, Janssens, and Van (2003), demonstrated that quality of parent-adolescent relationships explains adolescent antisocial behavior. The quality of relationships could be defined as a constellation of attitudes toward the child that are communicated to the child in the long history of the relationships (Darling & Steinberg, 1993). Dekovic (1999) found that the negative quality of relationships between the adolescents and their parents is related to higher levels of externalizing problems, such as disturbing others, verbal and physical aggression, and acts of violence (Nelson, Rutherford, & Wolford, 1996). Research has found that the relationships between adolescents with antisocial behavior and their parents are characterized by a lack of emotional ties between parents and adolescents also contribute to involvement in maladaptive behavior (Glueck & Glueck, 1962; Hirschi, 1969).
Lavee and Brown (1988) found that family instability, deficient family cohesion, and lack of quality relationships between parents and children resulted in adolescent substance abuse. The majority of adolescent criminal offenses are committed by males. This overrepresentation of males in juvenile delinquency is one of the most robust and stable findings in the literature (Freeman, 1996; Odgers & Moretti, 2002). Starting from later childhood, boys show higher rates of conduct problems than girls (Farrington, 1987). Girls may engage in criminal activities, but boys commit more serious crimes such as aggravated assault, robbery, and murder (Quinsey, Skilling, 2004). Girls, however, show a propensity towards indirect and verbal aggression. Some environments restrict certain behavioral responses of adolescents, while other environments tend to promote a wide range of behavioral adaptations.
Kubrin, Stucky, and Krohn (2009) posit that there is movement from restricted (e.g., school, family) to unrestricted environments (e.g., peers, gangs) in adolescence. During this period, teenagers begin to exercise choices independently and try to disconnect from the restricted environment. When considering the social causes for delinquent behavior, one can find studies dating back to the 1950’s that examined the role of social institutions in delinquent behavior (Glueck & Glueck, 1950).
Notably, not much work is available on the delinquent’s position about the role of the parents. A good amount of negligence can be seen when it comes to the nature of relationship the parents share with their children
In this study, the present researcher has used a primarily quantitative method. By quantitative method, we mean that we have used a primarily structured questionnaire which is used with the intention of interviewing a number of parents. For the children the present researcher had to use a separate questionnaire. Clearly describing the objectives of the study here is an attempt to describe the methods of collecting the data, basic design of the study, information regarding the sample participants, tools of data collection, processing and presentation.
. To understand whether the amount of time spent for children by their parents is a major cause for delinquent behavior of the children
. To examine the children’s opinion regarding the role of their parents.
As age, sex, income, parental education and occupation, parent-child attachment, lead to changes these are the independent variable whereas, delinquent behavior of the children is the dependent variable of the present study.
Area of the Study:
The study was conducted in different locations of Howrah.
The technique of purposive and convenience sampling is used in the present study. The area in which the present researcher carried out the study was based on the convenience of the present researcher due to certain limitation of time, money and energy. The sampling method was used purposive because the present researcher’s purpose was to deal with the teenagers and their parents. The present researcher had to use two separate questionnaire one for the children and for the parents. 25 children and 25 parents were interviewed separately using two different interview schedule. The study was conducted on a few more respondents but on not receiving satisfactory response, the same had to be eliminated.
Read : Research Basics
Type of Research :
This research is mainly a quantitative research where the present researcher has used an interview schedule for obtaining information from the respondents. The respondents were mainly the parents and their children. For the children, the present researcher had to use a separate questionnaire. The adult respondents, i.e., the parents varied primarily in terms of their occupation, income, etc. The children ( aged between 12 to 18 years ) were classified under two groups as school goers and non school goers.
Method of Data Collection :
Interview is the primary method of data collection. The respondents were interviewed using an interview schedule for the collection of data from the samples selected. The schedule included two separate sets of questions, one for the parents and the other for the child. The questions were divided into various categories such as the socio-demographic profile, educational background; extent and quality of time parents spend with their children, parents’ view about the future career of their children, relationship between the parents themselves, nature of bonding between the siblings, consequence of negative peer pressure, children’s view about their bonding with their parents etc.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
In this section the present researcher aims to examine the particular social problems that the respondents considered most important in today’s context. A general opinion based question was asked to the public regarding the three most trivial social problems in the present society. There were 11 options among which the following three were chosen by the public.
The next part of the section is oriented on children group and parental opinions. This topic has been presented by the means of frequency tables and graphical representation like bar graphs and pie-charts.
the final part of the section consists of cross-tabulation for the children and for the parent which depict the mutual relationship between the parents and their adolescent child, parental supervision and monitoring for preventing the delinquent activity of the child.
Most Important Social problems
The table and diagram-1 show that the most important social problem according to the respondents is juvenile delinquency (28% ) followed by unemployment (24%) and domestic violence (12%).
Important Social problems
The table and Diagram-2 depict that the important social problems are corruption (20%), juvenile delinquency (20%), followed by environmental problem ( 16%) and political disturbances (12%).
Less Important Social problem
Table 3 shows that (see also Diagram 3) the problems which were of less significance were moral degradation (36%), followed by domestic violence (12%), crime (12%), unemployment (8%), corruption (8%), poverty (8%). As the study was conducted on the areas of the present researcher’s convenience, it is only an indicative study of the problem and not fully conclusive for the society at large.
Children’s Data Analysis and Findings
Age Categories of the Teenagers
The table and diagram-4 show that (56%) of the children are early teens and (44%) are late teens.
Educational Categories of Children
|Junior High (Up to Class IX)||6||24.0|
|Secondary (Class X & XI)||11||44.0|
|Higher Secondary (Class XII & Above)||8||32.0|
Table 5 shows that the children studying in junior high (Up to Class IX) are 24% and children studying in Secondary (Class X & XII) are 44% and that in Higher Secondary ( Class XII & Above) are 32% (see also Diagram 5).
Gender of the child
It can be seen from table 6 that mostly the respondents in this study are males (68%), whereas (32%) teenagers are female respondents (see also Diagram 6).
Extent of Arguments with parents
It is evident from the Table 7 that 32% of children responded ‘yes’ when asked about argument with parents and (60%) responded as ‘sometimes’, whereas only 8% of the children responded as ‘no’. So it is clearly seen that most of the present teenagers sometimes argue with their parents (see also Diagram 7)
Extent of Fighting with Friends
Table number 8 show that (44%) the teenagers mostly responded to ‘ sometimes’ when asked about the question of fighting with friends. (32%) responded to ‘no’, whereas (24%) of the children responded to ‘yes’. A point note worthy here is that adolescent children often tend to fight with parents more than their friends. As 60% of the respondents mostly responded to ‘sometimes’ when asked about the question of argument with parents whereas, in this case it can be seen that 44% of the children responded as ‘sometimes’ when asked about argument with friends (see also Diagram 8).
Habit of Teasing of Opposite Gender
The table and diagram 9 show that (56%) of the teenagers responded as ‘no’, whereas (24%) responded as ‘sometimes’ and only ‘20%’ answered as ‘yes’. So it can be said that the ‘20%’ who said ‘yes’ when asked about the habit of teasing opposite gender are more inclined towards committing any kind of delinquent activity.
|Dancing or singing||5||20.0|
It can be seen that 15% of the teenagers responded as ‘others’ when asked about the hobbies. Hobbies likes ‘others’ includes surfing social network sites such as facebook and whatsapp, video gaming, watching movies etc ,whereas 20% of the respondents were seen to be engaged in dancing or singing, (12%) of the teenagers in ‘drawing’ and only (8%) of the teenagers were seen to be engaged in reading books
Time spent with Parents
Table and Diagram 11 show that 44% the adolescent children usually spend time with their parents while having dinner, 24% of the children spend time with their parents in engaging in ‘other’ activities. ‘Other’ activities include engaging in a family conversation, helping with the household chores etc. 20% of the children are seen to spend time with their parents ‘while studying’ and the rest 12% spends time with their guardian in weekend outing.
Time spent with friends
|In the school||6||24.0|
|Playing any games||7||28.0|
It can be seen from the table and diagram number 12 that, 28% each of the teenagers like to spend time with their friends in ‘playing games’ and ‘roaming out’. While, 24% of the adolescents spend their time with friends in the school and 20% of the teenagers like to ‘watch movies’ with their friends.
Family members with whom the teenagers lives
|Both mother and father||16||64.0|
From the above table and diagram 13 it can be seen that (64%) teenagers lives with ‘both mother and father’,(20%) lives only with their ‘mother’ and (8%) of the teenagers lives with their father and ‘others’ including (8%) with whom the teenagers lives are aunts and grandparents.
Relationship with parents
|Positive and Open||12||48.0|
|Positive but not open||5||20.0|
|Somewhat positive and somewhat open||6||24.0|
|Negative relation and not open at all||2||8.0|
According to the table and diagram number 14 it can be seen that 48% of the teenagers are having a ‘Positive and Open’ relation with their guardians, 24% of the teenager are having a ‘somewhat positive and somewhat open’ relationship with their parents, whereas 20% of the adolescents are having a ‘positive but not open’ relation and 8% are having a negative relation with their guardians.
Sharing of Secrets
The above table and diagram 15 show that 44% teenagers like to share their secrets mostly with their ‘friends’, followed by their 28% of their ‘mother’ , 12% with their ‘siblings’ and ‘father’, and only 4% of ‘others’ includes sharing secrets with their aunts, grandparents etc.
Parents Data Analysis and Findings
Educational Qualification of the Parents
The above table and diagram number 16 show that (36%) of the respondents are ‘graduate’, (24%) are ‘post-graduates’, and (20%) have completed ‘secondary’ and ‘higher secondary’
Gender of the parents
The above table and diagram number 17 show that the ‘gender’ of the parents consisted (64%) of the ‘female’ respondents and (36%) of the ‘male’ respondents. ‘Mothers’ are mainly the respondents in this study.
Occupation of the Parents
Table and diagram number 18 show that 52% of the respondents were housewives, 20% of the parents were engaged in ‘service’ and ‘business’ while 8% of the parents were ‘self employed’
Knowledge About the Timings of the School
The above table and diagram 19 show that 76% of the parents are aware of the timings of the school of their children, where 16% responded as ‘no’ when asked about the timings of the school of their children and 8% responded as ‘don’t know’ when asked the same question
Diagram – 19
Knowledge of the child’s friends phone number
It can be seen from the table and diagram that 64% of the parents don’t know about their children’s friends phone number while only 36% of the parents know about it. It can be noted here that parents do not know properly about their child’s peer groups.
Amount of Pocket Money
It can be seen from the above table and diagram that 56% of the parents who said ‘yes’ gives pocket money to their children and 36% said ‘no’ that they don’t give any kind of pocket money to their children while, 8% of the parents said ‘sometimes’ when asked about whether they give any amount of pocket money to their children or not.
Account of Pocket Money
Table and diagram 22 depict that 64% of the parents don’t ask about the account of pocket money, 24% of the parents ask about the account of pocket money to their child and 12% ‘sometimes’ ask to their child about it. In general, parents are seen to be quite negligent regarding their child’s spending of the pocket money
Time Spent On Mobile Phones
|Rarely/none of the time||7||28.0|
|Most/all of the time||14||56.0|
The above table and diagram show that 56% of the teenagers ‘mostly or all of the time’ spend time in their cell phones according to their parents while 28% of the teenagers ‘rarely or none of the time’ use their cell phones according to their guardians and 16% of the teenagers ‘sometimes’ use their cell phones.
|Consideration of Children to be Friends With the Parents|
|Not yet, they are too young||4||16.0|
The above table and diagram show that 52% of the parents considers their children to be their friends as they said ‘yes’, 12% of the parents said ‘no’ as they don’t consider their children to be their friends while 20% of the guardians answered as ‘don’t know’ and 16% of the parents said that their children are ‘too young to be their friends’
Example of other child given by the parents
|Rarely or none of the times||5||20.0|
|A little part of the time|
Good part of the time
Most/all part of the time
It can be seen from the above table and diagram that 32% of the parents said ‘ a little part of the time’ when asked whether they give examples of other child in the locality or in the school,(0% of the parents said ‘most/all part of the time’ and also’ rarely or none of the time’, 12% of the parents said ‘a good part of the time’ when asked about giving examples of other child, while 16% of the guardians answered ‘sometimes’ when asked the same.
Extent of Trust
|Rarely or none of the times||1||4.0|
|A little part of the time||4||16.0|
|Most/all part of the time||11||44.0|
The above table and diagram number 25 show that 44% of the parents trust their children ‘mostly/all part of the time’, 36% of the parents trust their children ‘sometimes’, whereas 16% of the guardians trust their children ‘a little part of the time’ and only 4% of the guardians ‘rarely or none of the time’ trust their child. So it can be seen that parents generally trust their children.
Praising of Child By The Parents
|Rarely or none of the time||3||12.0|
|A little part of the time||11||44.0|
|Most/ all part of the time||6||24.0|
It can be seen from the above table and diagram that 44% of the parents praise their children only ‘a little part of the time’, 24% of the parents praise their children ‘most/all part of the time’, 20% of the guardians ‘praise their children ‘sometime’ and 12% of the parents ‘rarely or none of the time’ praise their child.
Present Teenage Problem
|Nuclear family/improper grooming||3||12.0|
36% of the parents responded to ‘social networking’ and ‘disobedience/rudeness/impoliteness’ as a major problem of the present teenage, 12% responded to ‘drug abuse’ and ‘nuclear family/improper grooming’ as a serious problem of the adolescents in the present society, while 4% of the respondents answered ‘peer pressure’ to be a serious issue for the teenagers shows the above table.
Solution of the Adolescent Crisis
|Making the child understand||6||24.0|
|Mutual understanding between the parents and the child||3||12.0|
|Proper grooming of the child/child’s self realization||4||16.0|
|Freedom should be given to the child||3||12.0|
The above table and diagram show that the 36% of the respondents who were parents said the problem of the adolescent crisis can be solved by ‘restricting’ the child, whereas 24% of the parents said the solution of the adolescent crisis is to ‘make the child understand’, 16% of the parents said that the ‘mutual understanding between the parents and the child’ can be a solution to the present adolescent crisis and also the ‘proper grooming of the child ‘can be a suggestion to the adolescent crisis, while only 12% said that the ‘freedom should be given to the child’ to the question of the solution of the adolescent crisis.
|Gender * Knowledge of the child’s friends phone number Cross tabulation|
|Knowledge of the child’s friends phone number||Total|
|% within Gender||33.3%||66.7%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||37.5%||62.5%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||36.0%||64.0%||100.0%|
Table 1 show that 33.3% fathers know about their child’s friends phone number, whereas 37.5% mothers have the knowledge about their child’s friend’s phone number. 66.7% fathers do not have the knowledge of their child’s friend’s phone number while 62.5% mothers do not know about it. Hence it can be said that, mostly the parents are not aware of their child friends contact number in general. This shows that parents do know the peer group with whom their child mixes and therefore this negligence can lead to a child becoming a delinquent in future as the parents do not know about the whereabouts of their child’s peer circle or their peer’s contact number. In this context the views of (Steinberg et al. 1994) supports the present researcher’s argument as it stresses about the importance of parental monitoring as an important factor as it prevents the child from engaging in any kind of delinquent activity.
|Gender * Account of Pocket Money Asked Or Not Cross tabulation|
|Account of Pocket Money Asked Or Not||Total|
|% within Gender||22.2%||66.7%||11.1%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||25.0%||62.5%||12.5%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||24.0%||64.0%||12.0%||100.0%|
The above table shows that (22.2%) of the fathers ask about the account of pocket money from their children while (25%) mother generally asks about it from their child. It can be seen that 66.7% fathers do not ask about the account of pocket money from their child and (62.5%) of the mothers also do not ask about the account of pocket money from their children. Here, also it can be said that parents are not interested in asking about the account of pocket money from their child. This can lead to serious level of problem as the parents are not aware of how the child is spending the amount of pocket money and with whom. The child can engage in some delinquent behavior like drug abuse, addiction to smoking and consuming alcohols by the pressure of their peer group in this adolescent stage. Parents should monitor the activities of their child and must always take an account of the amount of pocket money spend by them to prevent their child from engaging in any kind of delinquent activity.
|Occupation * Account of Pocket Money Asked Or Not Cross tabulation|
|Account of Pocket Money Asked Or Not||Total|
|% within Occupation||30.8%||69.2%||0.0%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||20.0%||60.0%||20.0%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||20.0%||60.0%||20.0%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||0.0%||50.0%||50.0%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||24.0%||64.0%||12.0%||100.0%|
From the above table it can be seen that 30.8% of the mothers who are housewives keep an account of the pocket money given to their children whereas 69.2% of the housewives do not ask about it. 20% of the parents who are engaged in ‘service’ and ‘business’ ask about the account of pocket money from their child while 60% of them do not keep an account of it, 20% of the parents who are involved in ‘business’ and ‘service’ sometimes ask about the account of the pocket money from their children. While 50% of the parents who are self employed ‘sometimes’ ask about it from their children and also 50% of the self employed parents do not ask about it from their child. So it can be seen that mothers who are home-makers also do not know about the child friend’s phone number in spite of being in home and also the parents who are involved in service , business do not usually ask about the account of pocket money spend by their child. So, it can be seen that parents in general do not generally ask about the account of pocket money spend by their child which can lead to some serious delinquent behavior of the child in the future if the parents are negligent about this issue.
Occupation * Present Teenage Problem Cross tabulation
|Present Teenage Problem||Total|
|Disobedience/ rudeness/ impoliteness||Social Networking||Drug Abuse||Peer Pressure||Nuclear family/ improper grooming|
It can be seen from the above table that according to the housewives, the present problem of the teenagers are 38.5% ‘disobedience/rudeness/impoliteness’ towards their elders, 38.5% said the use of social networking sites as the problem for the teenagers in the present society, 7.7% of the drug abuse can be seen as a problem for the home-makers and nuclear family/improper grooming 15.4% is said to be a problem for the teenagers in the present society according to the housewives
Parents who are engaged in service and business said 40% disobedience/rudeness as the major problem for the teenagers, while the parents who are engaged in service said that 20% of the problem lies in the use of social networking sites by the teenagers and those who are engaged in business said that 40% of the problem of the teenagers in the present society in the use of the social networking sites. While parents according to the parents who are self employed the problem of social networking sites 50% and the peer pressure 50% is said to be a major problem of teenagers in the present society. We can say that according to most of the parents, the use of social networking sites, peer pressure, disobedience is the major problem of the teenagers in the present society.
|Occupation * Solution of The Adolescent Crisis Cross tabulation|
|Solution of The Adolescent Crisis||Total|
|Making the child understand||Mutual understanding between the parents and the child||Restricting them||Proper grooming of the child/child’s self realization||Freedom should be given to the child|
|% within Occupation||38.5%||15.4%||15.4%||23.1%||7.7%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||0.0%||0.0%||80.0%||0.0%||20.0%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||0.0%||0.0%||100.0%||0.0%||0.0%||100.0%|
|% within Occupation||24.0%||12.0%||36.0%||16.0%||12.0%||100.0%|
The above table shows that according to the housewives, the solution of the teenage crisis is by making the child understand (38.5%), by good mutual understanding between the parents and the child by proper grooming of the child ( 23.1%), by good mutual understanding between the parents and the child (15.4%), by restricting the child from certain activities 15.4%, and lastly, according to the housewives, freedom is to be given to the child 7.7% to overcome the adolescent crisis. While, according to the parents engaged in business 80% of the solution lies in restricting the child and only 20% of freedom should be given to the teenager to solve the problem of the present teenage problem
And lastly, according to the parents engaged in self employment the solution of the present adolescent crisis is only by restricting the child 100%
|Gender * Extent of Argument with Parents Cross-tabulation|
|Extent of Argument with Parents||Total|
|% within Gender||29.4%||11.8%||58.8%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||37.5%||0.0%||62.5%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||32.0%||8.0%||60.0%||100.0%|
It can be seen from the following table that 29.4% of the teenage males argue with their parents while 11.8% of the males do not fight with their parents whereas 58.8% of the male child argue with their parents.
While, 37.5% females tend to fight with their parents while 62.5% of the females ‘sometimes’ fight with their parents. So it can be seen that female children are more often tend to be engaged in delinquent behavior than the males. However, it is evident from the above table that teenagers in general tend to fight and argue with their parents
|Gender * Sharing of Secrets Cross-tabulation|
|Sharing of Secrets|
|% within Gender||23.5%||17.6%||5.9%||52.9%||0.0%|| |
|% within Gender||37.5%||0.0%||25.0%||25.0%||12.5%||100.0%|
|% within Gender||28.0%||12.0%||12.0%||44.0%||4|| |
From table-7 and diagram-1 we can see that the 52.9% teenage boys like to share secrets with their friends, followed by their 3.5% of their mother and 17.6% of their father. Whereas, for the girls it is seen that 37.5% mostly share their secrets with their mother,followed by their siblings 25.0% and friends 25%. Whereas, teenager girls like to share secrets with the ‘others’ 12.5%. Here,’ others’ includes grandparents, aunts, teachers etc.
We can conclude that, the teenage boys do not share their secrets with their parents compared to their friends. So, it can be said that parents do not sufficiently know all the information regarding their child like their friends know. This can lead a teenager to commit any kind of delinquent behavior because they tend to hide secrets from their parents. It is pertinent to mention that a child’s well wisher and a best friend can only his/her mother or father because only a parent can help a child to solve any kind of problem or any kind of distress that the child is facing in his/her adolescent period rather than their friends.
In the case of the girl child it is seen that they like to share their secrets mostly with their mother compared to their friends. The teenage girls do not like sharing secrets with their fathers maybe because they think mothers are more soft hearted and lenient than the father.
The present study ‘Juvenile delinquency and parental role’ was undertaken to understand the mutual relationship between the parents and the adolescent child. Adolescent is a transitional period from childhood to adulthood and the relationship between adolescents and their parents are vital. Lack of intimacy, lack of parental involvement, blaming and anger can lead to delinquent behavior among adolescents.
From the study of the review of literature, we came to know that various authors have opined that a good amount of negligence can be seen when it comes to the amount of time the parents share with their children. The more leisure time that an adolescent spends with parents, the less likely the adolescent is to deviate. The purpose of this study was to examine and understand whether the extent and the quality of time spend by the parents for their children is directly proportional for a child to be engaged in any kind of delinquent activity and also to know the opinion of the children regarding the bonding with their parents.
The present researcher in this study has used a primarily quantitative method of research design. Parents and the children were questioned separately with the help of two different interview schedule. The research was conducted in a small area of the Howrah district as per the convenience of the present researcher due to the lack of time, energy and money.
In the next stage, the researcher analyzed and processed the data with the help of a software named ‘ Statistical Package for Social Science’, mainly known as ‘ SPSS’. The data were further processed and scrutinized in ‘SPSS’, to make the job easier for the present researcher. The data were presented in the form of bar charts, pie diagrams and cross-tabulations to statistically analyze the responses of the various respondents.
The results of the study henceforth showed that, the parents do not supervise the children completely. Mostly, the parents are unknown of the whereabouts of their children’s peer circle. The children do not share enough information with their parents like they share it with their friends which can lead to a child becoming a delinquent. Children’s were seen in the findings to be engaged always every time in different altercations with their parents. Mostly, the teenager girls were seen to engaged in more arguments than the teenage boys.
The parents should spend more leisure time with their children and try to be their best friend. Parents should also concentrate more in having the knowledge of their child’s peers because undue influences of peer groups can lead a child to be a delinquent. So we can come to a general conclusion that, the mutual relationship between the parents and their children should have a friendly bonding to prevent the child to be engaged in further delinquent behavior or activities. Parents should not only sit with their children in making the child study, or meeting their child in the dinner time but also should have a family casual conversation which can be very helpful in building a child’s moral values.
LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The present study has certain limitations.
- As non-probability purposive and convenience sampling is used so the results can therefore not be generalized beyond the sample studied. It would be incorrect to say that the present study reflects the universal truth as this study is based upon the researcher’s convenience and purpose so it includes a small area of the Howrah region.
- There can be a better research on this topic if sufficient resources are available.
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Ranking of social problems: (Please rank three important social problems that seem to be most serious to you)
What according to you is the leading social problem of the recent times?
- a) Unemployment
- b) Corruption
- c) Poverty
- d) Crime
- e) Juvenile Delinquency
- f) Domestic Violence
- g) Environmental problems
- h) Moral degradation
- i) Political disturbances
- j) Communal disharmony
- k) Others, please specify.
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND PARENTAL ROLE
- a) Name – (optional) c) Educational Qualification-
- b) Gender- M/F d) Occupation-
- e) Monthly Income-
1) Number of children-
2) If the number of children is more than one child, then what is the age gap between the two children?
- a) Between first and second b) Between second and third
- c) Between third and fourth c) Others. Please mention
3) Does your child go to school?
- a) Yes b) No
|Gender||Timings of the school||No of friends he/she has||Do you know the phone number of your child’s friends? (Yes/No)||Type of co-curricular activities||Time spent|
in co-curricular activities
|Amount of pocket money given.||Account of pocket|
money ever asked ?
|Time spent on mobile phone|
4) Do you know about all your child or children’s activities?
5) Do you consider your children to be your friends?
- a) Yes b) No c) Not yet, they are too young
- d) Don’t know
6) Do you give the example of other children in your locality to encourage your child?
- a) Rarely or none of the time b) A little part of the time
- c) Sometime d) Good part of time
- e) Most/ all part of the time
7) To what extent you can trust your child?
- a) Rarely or none of the time b) A little part of the time
- c) Sometime d) Good part of time
- e) Most/ all part of the time
8) If you feel that your child is not growing up according to your aspirations what do you think the
` reasons could be?
9) How often do you praise your children?
- a) Rarely or none of the time b) A little of the time
- c) Sometime d) Most/ all of the time.
10) Mention some of the traits you want to see in your child?
- a) Honesty b) Good human
- c) Truthful d) Good in studies
- e) Others, please specify:
11) What do you think is the major problem for a teenager at this time?
12) What is your suggestion regarding the solution of this problem
Juvenile Delinquency and Parental Role
- a) Name- b) Gender- M/f c) Educational Qualification-
- d) Age- e) No. of Siblings –
1) What are the hobbies you are engaged in?
- a) Drawing b) Dancing/singing c) Reading Books
- d) Others , please mention.
2) How do you spend your free time?
- a) Reading books b) Having a family conversation c) Playing games
- d) Doing whatsapp/ fb e) Others, please mention
3) How do you spend your time with your parents?
- a) Having dinner b) Getting out in weekends
- c) While studying e) Others, specify.
4) How do you spend your time with your friends?
- a) In the school b) Playing any games c) Roaming out
- d) Watching movies e) Others, specify
5) With whom do you live with?
- a) Both mother and father b) Only Mother
- c) Only Father d) Others , please specify.
6) What do you do when your brother/sister misbehaves with you?
- a) Try to console them b) Complain to the parents
- c) Try to fight back d) Others , please specify
7) Do you end up quarrelling with your parents if they don’t agree with your demands?
- a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes
8) Do you end up fighting with you friends if the don’t agree with your decision?
- a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes
9) What is the best option when you find any valuable things of your friend left behind?
- a) Do you return it back to your friend? b) Do you keep it quietly to your self?
- c) Do you make it publicly known? d) Others, please specify
10) What is the relationship between you and your guardian?
- a) Positive and open b) Positive but not open
- c) Somewhat positive and somewhat open d) Negative relation and not open at all
11) Do you tease or make fun of your friends from the opposite gender?
- a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes
12) With whom do you like to share your secrets?
- a) Mother b) Father c) Siblings
- d) Friends e) Others, please specify.
Research by Anwesha Chakraborty, Bachelors in Sociology, Calcutta University