Peculium, Cartel, and Perceptions of Sociologists on different matters


In estate system i.e. the feudalism where servants served their masters, a term Peculium was introduced which basically means the lending of some amount of money or property to slaves. It was a hereditary system in which the parent guarantees the power of control to his next generation.


Cartel term was introduced before the starting of World War 2. Cartel Theory stated that the control over business and market profiles are under some group of influential people who led the group.


As the name suggests Differential suggest the variation, this term describes the variation of castes respective of their norms and beliefs and how the world moves and faces change along with this difference.

Perceptions of Different Sociologists on different matters:-

  1. Dahrendof shared his thoughts on stratification mentioning that the control and authority in some handful amount of people is the main cause of division between the societies. Thus he claimed that more than birth rights or casteism, authority and power are key factors in affecting stratification of societies.
  2. Hiller in his research work described the exact definition of caste as when a handful amount of people belonging to same class can align them or move forward is termed as caste.
  3. Marx also called as father of Conflict theories also gave another important theory called as Theory of Alienation. In this theory, he showed how a slave or lower caste working under the master loses the ability to think about themselves and thus it is the maximum solitude any human being experience from himself only.
  4. Hutton firmly believed that caste is a pattern of some people who are always assigned to a group. For example, the category of Brahmins will be different from other castes and hence they form a unique group.
  5. Davis and Moore viewed Stratification from the functionalist view in which they were ensured that it is serving for the betterment of society. Whereas Marx was equally opposite of this idea that stratification is providing any good to society.
  6. Senart tried to link stratification with religious theories that are through religion point of view, people are stratified. For example, a Hindu family is stratified from the Muslim community and it is not a function of caste but religion.
  7. Parsons was majorly focused about achieved status of person in a society. He agreed that the people should be given a higher rank and more bonuses if they are performing well than other peoples.
  8. Pelham viewed upper-class society etiquettes better than lower class people. He supported the idea of division supporting the view that upper-class people are way better than lower class people in many ways.
  9. Durkheim researched the topic called as Guild socialism in which the control of industries was also under workers of the company too.
  10. Marx studied every country’s position and strategy and after observing its pattern he put country India under the Asiatic Mode of Production.
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I am Prerna Jha, pursuing mechanical engineering from KIIT, Odisha, But I Love to Read and Write Sociology Related Concepts and Theories. I have done schooling from MVM School, Bilaspur. I have interest in writing love stories or any specific genre. I pursue a great interest in quilting. Right now I am an aspiring writer who writes for various pages. I have participated in many social events. I am a social animal who likes to have maximum participation in any fest.