A brilliant German philosopher, economist, sociologist, political theorist, revolutionary socialist and journalist, one and only Karl Marx. He was born on 5th of May 1818 and took his last breath on 14th of March 1883. He was born in Trier Prussia. His parents were Jewish and he was the oldest among his 9 other siblings. His first published volume was “Capital” (Das Kapital) in which he shared his idea of capitalism and how it destructs one’s self.
Karl Marx when was a student upheld with a movement of the Young Hegelians in which he was against the political and cultural establishments. Later he became a journalist due to his critical nature of writing government of Germany, France and Belgium expelled him out.
Marxian theory offers a radical alternative to functionalism.it became increasingly influential during the nineteen seventies.due partly to the decline of functionalism, partly to its promise to provide answers which functionalism failed to provide.Marxism takes its name from its founder, the German-born philosopher, economist and sociologist Karl Marx.
The Marxian theory begins with a simple observation that in order to survive man must produce food and materialistic objects. So he enters into social relationships with other men. from the simple hunting to the complex in the scary state reduction is the social enterprise.production also involves a technical aspect known as the forces of production which contain the technology, raw materials and the knowledge of science Employed in the process of production. Each stage in the development of the forces of production will correspond with a particular form of the social relationships of production. Therefore the forces of production in a hunting economy will correspond with a particular set of social relations. The forces of production and the social relationship of production form the economic base or infrastructure of society.
The other components of society, known as the superstructures. Hence the political, legal and educational institutions and the belief and value systems are primarily determined by the economic factors.
The key to understanding society from a Marxian perspective involves an analysis of the infrastructure. In all historical societies, there are basic contradictions between the forces and their relations of production and there are fundamental conflicts of interest between the social groups involved in the production process.In particular, the relationship between the major social groups is one of the exploitation and oppression. The superstructure drives largely from the infrastructure and hence reproduces the social relationships of production. It will hence reflect the interest of the dominant group in the relations of production.Ruling class ideology distorts the true nature is society and serves to legitimate and justify the status quo. However, the contradictions in the infrastructure will gradually lead to a disintegration of the system and the creation of a new society.
Karl Marx on Power:
According to Marx Power is seen to be held by a particular group in society at the expense of the rest of society. This is a consistent aggregate idea of energy since a net pick up in the energy of the predominant gathering speaks to a net misfortune in the influence of whatever is left of the general public. The dominant group uses power to further its own interest. These interests are in direct conflict with the interests of those subject to its power, not this is very different from the picture presented by persons in which rulers and ruled pull together for the benefit of society as a whole.
Marxian perspective the source of power in society lies in the economic infrastructure. in all stratified societies the forces of production are owned and controlled by a minority, the ruling class. This relationship to the forces of production provides the basis of its dominance.it, therefore, follows that the only way to return power to the people in communal ownership of the forces of production. From the Marxian perspective, the use of power to exploit others is defined as coercion. It is seen as an illegitimate use of power since it forces the subject class to submit to a situation which is against its interests. If the ruling class power is accepted as legitimate by the subject class hence it is an indication of false class consciousness.
Education and Marxian perspective:
Marxian View of the role of education in Western industrial society is guided by the several related questions. Given the Marxian view of the nature of society, the major question asked, “How is educational system shaped by the economic infrastructure? Questions which drive from this such as “how does the educational system produce the kind of workforce required by the capitalism? Involve an investigation of the links between power, ideology, education And the relations of production in capitalist society. The answer provides a radical alternative to functionalist and liberal views of the role of education in society.
Karl Marx and Work:
Alienated Labour: According to Marx work-the production of goods and services holds the key to humans happiness and fulfillment. Work is the most important, the primary human activity.as such it can provide the means either to fulfill man’s potential or to pervert his nature and his relationship with others. In his earlier writings, he develops the idea of alienated labor. At its simplest alienation means that man is cut off from his work. As such he is unable to find satisfaction and fulfillment in performing his labor or in the products of his labor. Unable to express his true nature in his work, he is estranged from himself, he is a stranger to his real self. Since work is a social activity, alienation from work also involves alienation from others. The man is cut off from his fellow workers.
Marx’s solution to the problem with alienated labor is a communist or socialist society in which the forces of production are communally owned and the specialized division of labor is abolished.
Women and society
Marx Believe David witnessing the beginning of the women’s liberation In 19th century capitalist society. He argued that the demand for female paid labor would raise the status and power of proletarian women within the family. Marx believed that despite its many evil, “capitalist industry create a new economics foundation for a higher form of the family and of relations between the sexes”
Marx believed that to equality between the sexes could only be achieved in a socialist society in which the forces of production were communally owned.
Marx and Religion:
To Marx religion is just an illusion which ease The pain reduced by exploitation and oppression.it is a series of myths justify and legitimate the Subordination of the subject class and the domination and privilege of the ruling class.it is a distortion of reality which provides many of the deceptions which form the basis of ruling class ideology and false class consciousness.
According to Marx religion takes place when people are oppressed or in problems. So he says religion does not simply cushion the effects of oppression it also acts as an instrument of that oppression. It acts as a mechanism and of social control, maintaining the existing system of exploitation and reinforcing class relationships.
Marx regard to man as both the producer and product of society. man makes society and himself by his own actions. history is, therefore, the process of man’s self-creation not yet man is also a product of society.he is shaped by the social relationships and systems of thought which he creates an understanding of society, therefore, involves an historical perspective which exam Ines the process whereby man what reduces and is produced by social reality. The various parts of society are interconnected and influence each other. therefore economic, Political, legal and religious institutions can only be understood in terms of the mutual effect.