Urbanization refers to the process of increase in the number of people living in urban areas and the ways in which the population adapts to the change. Urbanization increases with industrialization. As urbanization increases, a number of towns and cities increases, and people begin to live and work in central areas. Urbanization is a result of the historic transformation of human societies, where the rural culture is being replaced by urban culture. The rural culture consists of closeness in relations and communal behavior amongst the members of society. However, the urban culture consists of distant relations and there is competition amongst each other. The lifestyle of cities is very beneficial in terms of cultural and economic factors. With no industries and facilities in rural areas, the population is left to work only in the fields. But, in cities, there are more opportunities in employment in many sectors like industries, and other specialist services which create ample jobs. In cities, people have access to better medical facilities, they can look for better schools for good education of their children and can have better living standards. These reasons lead to rural people settling in cities. Another reason for people moving to cities in the modern environment of urban areas. There is a variety of fashion, food, travel, and trends that fascinates the people. People try their luck in cities to get all the luxuries of life and increase their standards of living. Apart from these factors, environmental factors like drought and rain can also lead to urbanization, as the livelihood of the village people is primarily dependent upon land and cultivation.
However, there are countless numbers of problems associated with urbanization as well. As all the rural people start moving to cities, it results in overcrowding. With jobs being limited and demand increases, it results in unemployment of a large number of people. There is a scarcity of opportunities, and every sector becomes full of competition. Unemployment naturally causes poverty. This leads to the formation of slums on the outskirts of the city, as people cannot afford houses. Urbanization causes many environmental effects as well. Harmful gases produced by vehicles, factories, and industries worsen the environmental conditions. More population results in more waste being produced, which degrades the environment. Urbanization also leads to degradation of mental health. There is a lack of social relations and communal behaviors among the people, and there is more of a competitive nature. Every individual remains busy in earning and making their lives luxurious, forgetting that human is a social animal which cannot survive without socialization and human interactions.
In today’s scenario, it is becoming vital to reduce the negative side of urbanization. First and foremost thing that can be done is to prevent overpopulation. With a maintained population, there would be more opportunity for a better income and choice of living. Education is the most powerful tool to overcome this problem. Hence, education should be provided to the weaker sections of the society, and they should be informed, the problems caused by overpopulation. More jobs should be created, and people should be motivated to start their own business and firms. The government should join hands with the people, and together they should work for the betterment of society.