Ibn Khaldun : His Life and Work – Muslim Philosophy

Ibn Khaldun, who was born in Tunis. He was a North African Arab historian. A historian is a person who studies the history of a particular thing, place, culture, society etc. He is considered as a father of the modern disciplines of sociology. He also, has written a book and become very famous at his time for the same act: the book which he has written were known as the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena. He launched the book “Muqaddimah”, a treatise to study of history in 1378.

He had received education from the best teacher known at their time, the rank of family proofed beneficial for the great historian due to which Mr. Khaldun achieved his education in the Maghreb.

Ibn Khaldun classified and divided the history into two forms, i.e. the outer forms and the inner forms. He differentiated between them, i.e. he between the outer forms ( which is also known as  Zahir), and the inner forms(which is also known as batin). He placed the facts and reports of the history in the outer form; the inner meaning (batin) have in it, the causes of incidents in history. He claimed these two classifications as the tool which may contribute. These terms were coined by him as a tool for the study of history he claimed it would be easy to study history under such division. He directed himself toward uncovering the causes of the incidents in the past.

He studied the rise and decline of the various North African states and was passionate about studying about the past of states. He tossed a term “’a_sabiyyah” which means group- feeling or such feeling which supports teamwork. He claimed Only the society which has such member within, that have a strong ‘a_sabiyyah are able to establish domination and could lead such groups or society which have a weak ‘a_sabiyyah.

He also mentioned the reason behind his such claim. The reason explains the land as the center of attraction for people or groups. The group with superior ‘a_sabiyyah may have power or may be able to defeat the people residing in urban areas; thereafter they establish their own dynasties in that place. This process of capturing land by the group having more power or the group with superior ‘a_sabiyyah continues and the strongest remains alive in the end with the best as ruler

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