poverty Meaning/Definition and Introduction
India, as we all know being a country appreciated by all the other countries in the world and moving towards from underdeveloped to developing the country in the world it also experiences an extreme kind of poverty levels. Many might be shocked by hearing the fact and put a question of HOW POVERTY OF THIS KIND IS POSSIBLE IN COUNTRY LIKE INDIA?. let’s begin an essay on poverty in India
No one knows in India what exactly the meaning of poverty means. In India, poverty counts were based on a large Sample Survey of Household expenditure and they are also based on purchasing power parity which is needed to buy food with some margin for not food consumption needs. As long as the estimates suggest almost 60% of the poor continue to reside in Bihar-Jharkhand Orissa Madhya Pradesh-Chhattisgarh Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand and mostly 85% of them are India’s tribal people. Though state Government is making a lot of promises and implementing many policies in order to alleviate the poverty in India, many have not been achieved and India ranks top in poverty levels in the world.
ECONOMIC REFORMS OF 1991
Now let us look into the main causes of poverty, one of the main cause which leads to huge differences in the rural and urban poverty is 1991 neoliberal economic reforms introduced by ours. former Prime Minister Narasimha. In spite of the fact that new economic liberalism leads to development in the territory sector of India it also made huge differences of income inequalities between rural and urban poor.
Let’s see how it happened, India, achieved independence in 1947 has not been completely successful in educating all the people and the huge population of its country and so it is really difficult for the government to make people recruit itself into the service sector especially the poor peoples without any education.The best way it would have done is that, first it might have recruit people into manufacturing sector which can provide lots of lots of manual work for the poor people with no education and can earn lot and educate their children and after a decade of getting themselves settled into a stabilized economic position the government then can rush into the service sector, where in, the recruitment of all the educated people and as well as the development of country can also go in hand by hand.
But the only mistake that the government of India has done is it haven’t done anything to improve the manufacturing sector as well as the education and economic stability of people and then rushed directly from primary sector, which is mainly dependent on agriculture where 80% of population of India depends on it, to directly service sector. So many people with low education as well as who are not rich were unable to grab the developmental projects where the government is investing a lot and hence the poor become poorer and the rich become richer so there is no doubt that globalization and modernization benefit only the rich people and hasn’t done anything for the improvement of the lower and poor sections of a rural poor especially.
There are many other causes which affect directly and indirectly the poverty levels of India one thing need to be noticed is that poverty levels are being also estimated by using the poverty line, the people above poverty line are treated as non-poor and the people below poverty line are treated as absolutely poor people and also poverty has been calculated on the basis of calorie intake which says 2500 kilocalories are to be required for a person per day in rural areas and 2300 kilocalories per day for a person in urban areas. And the person who is not meeting this requirement is treated under the category of absolutely poor people.
1.HIGH POPULATION GROWTH RATE
The other causes of high poverty is the high population growth of India which is growing uncontrollably since decades, is the main reason for the growth of poverty in India. High population growth is making the government inefficient of not providing employment to all the other people and it further increases the health issues, low literacy rate, income inequality levels.
2.INFLATION AND HIGH PRICE RISE
Inflation is the main factor which signifies too much money chases too few goods shows increase in the prices.This makes poor people unaffordable to meet their health requirements and also daily necessary goods and then health is becoming miserable day by day which further leads to the inability and incapability to work and earn money.
Caste system which is widely prevailing in India does not allow women to get into the working sector even though the conditions of the Family is worse and many other caste systems does not allow untouchables to do some worklike teaching Vedas learning them going for temple related activities and also not allowing many other people to work into the high qualified jobs. This makes them void of many other facilities and ways to earn their own income.
Prejudices like women has the low capability to work and they are insufficient to do well in manufacturing Sector does not allow them to earn high and paid low though there is law of equal pay for equal genders has implemented and encouraged by government, and so the family with women dependent is absolutely earning the low income than the family with the male dependent where the poverty level for the families would rise higher and higher.
5.UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME
Unequal distribution of income and resources is the main problem which is mainly due to land distribution and unequal justice between people. Many other reforms that were implemented effectively by the government had many loop holes in it and there arises a kind of scarcity for education,, health, employment and thereby again dumped into the well of poverty.
Due to many of the unorganized working activities the workers are not been taken the responsibility of their insurance, working suitable conditions ,maternity leaves and providing the female workers with some salaries in the age of their Maternity where the workers are not getting full benefits of their working activities and has to spent their own money on all these activities which are insufficient to carry on the necessary daily requirements.
Corruption which is widely prevalent in India and every nook and corner of the country and world is full of is eating every minute of a poor person especially by avoidance or elevation of tax rates by rich people who had lot of income leads to black money, and illegal ways of earning money through unlawful acts is the way of corruption which affects indirectly the poor people.
8.LACK OF AWARENESS
The main thing where we are unable to come out of poverty is that lack of awareness among poor people about what they have to do and especially in the girls who are not willing to go for any other activities and it would be shocked to know the fact that many poor people are also making their sons and children go for begging and they are not willing to turn their occupation from begging. So a lot of awareness has to be brought in by the government in order to change this willingness of poor people and go for some working activities which would help in the development activities for the government.
And also during the British period, poverty was intensely high, because the taxes that were collected during famines and even droughts by the Britishers by imposing many of the systems like, Mahalwari, Ryotwari, and zamindari system. The Britishers doesn’t allow the people to make their own occupation and activity in India and also along with that India which is dependent mainly on Textiles and agricultural sector is exploited by British and the imported goods are forced by British from Europe to be used by the people of India with higher rates where the people who are unable to pay the taxes, sustain during these conditions, and also unable to buy these goods with high rate were dumped again into poverty.
India poverty essay- Bureaucrats and administrator with their illegal activities are consuming the finances that are allocated to poor people are not making them to offer and get full benefits of government policies. So it is the responsibility of government to take care of these poor people in order to alleviate their condition and take all the necessary steps with certain periodical index census in regular periods of estimations which make aware of the present scenario of poverty lines in India. To say economist like Aravind Vermani believe that bad comments misplaced priorities and shit corruption and its use failure in improving the quality of Public Health and literacy are to be blamed for the social character of the poverty in India and their demographics.