The Tribal Sub-Plan is a plan or a strategy that was introduced by the government to ensure the socio-economic development of the Tribal people of India. It is a part of the annual plan of a state or UT ( Union Territory). The funds that are given under Tribal Sub Plan are in proportion with the Scheduled Tribe (ST) in the region. The states that are recognised and provided funds according to the TSP are 22 and Union Territories are 2. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamilnadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Island and Daman & Diu all fall under the category of TSP.
The main objectives of the Tribal Sub-Plan are:
To reduce the poverty and unemployment of the Tribal.
To eradicate the exploitation and develop the remote areas.
To improve the life there by providing adequate health and educational services.
To provide physical and financial security against any kind of oppression and exploitation.
The programs that come under the plan are:
- To identify the remote and tribal areas.
- To mark or set the limit and boundaries of the remote regions.
- To identify the cultural barriers and bring development.
- Promote change and assess the needs of tribal.
- Assess the resources available and funds provided for the Tribal.
The Tribal Sub Plan was proposed on the basis that no development is possible without the elimination of exploitation in any field. To prevent the exploitation, TSP has sought few measures such as marketing of agriculture produce, redemption of the debts through legislature and executive measures.
The states which had 50% of the Tribal population were cited under the plan. 16 states and 2 Union Territories were included in the plan during the Fifth Plan period. Under the plan almost 65% of the Tribal areas in India were covered.
India with the ultimate aim of balanced growth and development of all the states and people brought many plans and raised funds for them. The Scheduled Tribe were noticed to be behind the mainstream and weren’t exposed to the development process. There were programs initiated by the government to bring over all development and improve their economic status.
There are few major issues and problems in the execution of the programs under the plan. The objectives are completely violated by the department authorities. The fund and the resources that are sent for the welfare of the Tribal are used for their self benefits and thus the rules are violated. For instance, the funds that were sent for the Tribal benefit in Odisha are used for development of infrastructure in other areas than TSP areas. The budget that is assigned in annual year plan is less than the required based on the population of tribal. The budget provided should be used for the empowerment of the people in education and health through trainings, exposures and services. The SC and ST development departments are spending less than the required expenditure that are provided for the various development programs.
The State governments should take an initiative to bring awareness among the public regarding such plans, schemes and benefits provided to the ST by the various departments of India through media and press.