Higher education in India: Problems and Suggestions

Higher education v/s primary education: Debates on educational transformation have found their place in every political agenda. The government is constantly focused on finding out the best possible ways to reform the education system. To become an economic power it is essential to focus on higher education. It is commonly found that even after several reforms the education quality is lacking somewhere in India.

Primary education can never be ignored. It is like a foundation stone that sets aptitude for every child. It is equally important and relevant just like higher education. Primary education is more crucial because it also focuses on the overall development of a student. Government spending on higher education will work only if more and more children get admission into primary education.

The quality of higher education in India is somewhere between good and bad. But several issues are emerging that must be solved.


  • PRIVATIZATION: It is a process when the government backs out from any investment and more private firms start involving. The privatization of educational institutions is a bane. Education is being expensive for the maximum part of the population. Institutes like IITs and IIMs are taking very high fees. This is very unfair with low and middle – class students. For quality knowledge, they have to approach private institutions but huge fee and donations paralyze their dreams.
  • TEACHING QUALITY: Teaching has two major problems. Firstly, due to a lack of permanent and secure jobs, students do not prefer to go in this profession. We can witness several strikes by various teachers’ associations. Secondly, teachers are not well equipped with training. They are not qualified enough many times.
  • RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: This question often arises when it comes to higher education. Our country is spending very less on Research and Innovation. We can make satellites but not able to design our weapons. Lack of funding in this area is making our country dependent on other nations even when we have a very high rate of unemployment.
  • POLITICAL INTERFERENCES: Governing bodies of almost all renowned colleges and universities are affected by political influence. Even students are not ready to move out of this political cradle. This makes them irresponsible towards studies.
  • LESS FOCUS ON PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE: A very little focus is given to practical knowledge. Especially, on the humanities side, students are not encouraged for any practical experiment. There is no Project Based Learning.
  • AFFIRMATIVE ACTION: The most controversial problem is about the quota system. If it comes to promote accurate and productive higher education then the criteria of admission should be based on merit or entrances. This policy of positive discrimination is meant for a disadvantaged section but in reality, people in need are left vulnerable. People with every possible resource are getting benefits.
  • GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT: Grants that are given to state universities is very low as compared to other big nations. Due to disinvestments, the situation is becoming worse day by day. In many states like northeastern states, there is very little spending in higher education associations. There is very little emphasis on promoting higher education in rural areas.


The most pivotal need is to improve the implementation of affirmative action policy. Minorities like Scheduled Tribes, women, etc. are comparatively availing very fewer benefits. There must be a financial aid facility by the government for the weaker section of the society. Privatization is important but it should be affordable by all or the government can fix a quota in private institutions to admit poor people. The focus must be on vocational and practical education courses. There must be a check on fake accreditation norms going on.


Higher education is necessary for making any country independent. Steps must be taken to tackle these issues because education builds the future of any country. India is known for its hub of education with rank third in the world in the category of higher education. But alone buildings cannot define quality.

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