Constitution Concepts: Types Of Majority in Country

In the Indian Parliament, the decisions are taken by the majority. The decision can be anything like the passing of budget, motions, and resolutions, amendment of the constitution, etc. The Indian parliament has devised four types of the majority. They are

Before going to deal, with each of these terms it should be clear in one’s mind what abstainers, vacancies, absent members mean. Abstainers are those who are present in the house but abstain themselves from voting. Vacancies occur due to the temporary term of the seat being vacant which happens when the member dies or resigns or makes his position to another house etc. Absentees are those who are absent for that particular session /day to a house.
1. simple majority:
   it is obtained by counting the total number of majority obtained by 50%+
+1  of the members present and voting. That means the total membership of the house -( absentees, abstainers, vacant seats )divided by 2 +1.
“the majority of the members present and voting ng is the phrase used by the Indian constitution to define the simple majority.
 This majority is mainly used to pass Bills, budget, motions, and resolutions.even the no-confidence motion is passed by this majority.
2. Effective majority
this implies 50%+1  of the effective strength of the house. Effective strength means total membership of the house -(absentees+vacant seats.).
 A MAJORITY OF ALL THE THEN MEMBERS is the phrase used in the Indian constitution to describe an effective majority.
Why effective majority is used?
 It is used to remove from the office the following:
1. chairman(vice president of India) and the deputy chairman of the Raj ya sabha.
 To remove the vice president a resolution has to be passed by an effective majority in the Rajya sabha.
2. chairman and the deputy chairman of state legislative council.
3.speaker and the deputy speaker of the Lok sabha.
4.speaker and the deputy speaker of the state legislative Assembly.
3. Absolute majority: An absolute majority is present when there attains a majority of 50%+1 of the total membership of the house. Which means it includes the vacant seats, absentee and abstainers seats.
4. special Majority: Any majority other than simple, effective, absolute majority is defined as a special majority. Not less than two- third majority of the total membership of the house or not less than the two-thirds majority of the members of that house present and voting is used to define the special majority in the Constitution of India. It uses special purposes like impeaching the president of India, enabling the parliament to make the laws on state subject, for the creation of the new All India services, to pass resolutions by the Rajya Sabha, and finally in other cases where the absolute majority is required.
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