Globalization is the process by which there has been integrated across the globe of the economy as well as the culture and political organizations. It is mainly the process of opening up of the market of one country to the global market, or the markets or the other countries. This helps in interconnecting various nations across the world and making the world a global village. Globalization was introduced in India in 1992.
The sociology of globalization focuses its attention to the study of the changes and the consequences that have been brought about in the country as a result of this globalization. It studies the changing labor relations, economic exchange, the changing political scenario with the integration of the world economies, moreover, they focus their study on the changes in the cultural aspects of the society. in order to do this, they give their attention to economic globalization, political globalization, and cultural globalization.
The first and the foremost reason for the changes in country through globalization was the opening up of the economies to the wider world economy. This is what is known as economic globalization, such globalization has grown and expanded across the world as a result of the transnational/international trade, which is the movement of goods, capital, and services across the borders. There has been a growth of telecommunication and communication services, along with the growth in technology, which has made the expansion of globalization easier. The World trade organization plays an important role in opening up trade for various countries. The developed countries help the developing countries in doing business by providing them investment known as the foreign direct investment. Globalization has also created an opportunity for people to work outside their country and bring foreign capital, this has been possible due to the creation of jobs abroad. Moreover, globalization has led to an overall increase in the economic growth of various developing countries.
However economic globalization also has its setbacks, such as the increased dependence on the developed countries that are providing capital to the developing countries, further, a setback in the economy of one country can have an impact on others as these are now all integrated.
Another important aspect is the political globalization, this means that there is a worldwide political system wherein the various countries provide one another political or financial support and may form alliances. Such practices are seen being done in the United Nations forum, where all the countries from around the world come together to be a part of, here collectively, they take part in decision making for the welfare of the people of the world, e.g. in the recent disagreements, between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir in early 2019 it was the chief who had called on both the countries to reduce the tensions. Moreover, due to globalization, there has been a growth in the International Non-Governmental Organizations such as the SOS children’s village, which is based out of Austria.
Cultural globalization refers to the adoption of various cultures from around the world the exchange of ideas, values, etc. This has happened as a result of globalization as now we access t things available in another’s culture, and we can purchase them and at the same time, we see cultures that may seem attractive to us. This may also lead to the loss of one’s own culture.