The Social Construction of Reality – Summary Notes

The Social Construction of Reality Part 1: The Reality of Everyday Life The basic purpose is to sociologically analyze the concept of reality, but the understanding reality is quite the task. The approach to understanding reality should be through common sense as reality is available to the members of the society who possess common sense. … Read more


The relationship between history and sociology is closely intertwined. Both inquiries were taken from Philosophy mother of all sciences from which emerged sociology (Philosophy of History) history and other social sciences (Bierstedt, 1970:4). “Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretive understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a causal explanation of … Read more

Social Change: Definition, Characteristics, Causes, Types, and Examples

Humans are social beings. We exist in a social world and observe norms, rules and traditions that are all social constructs. Therefore social change is a concept that is threaded to the very root of society. Similar to the Earth completing a strenuous rotation around the Sun every year, society undergoes social change. It shapes … Read more

Social institutions: Definition, Characteristics, Types, Examples

What are social institutions? Societies are an abstract concept but it is universally agreed upon that a society is built up of certain norms, rules and traditions that maintain social order and stability. These norms and rules are required. They form gradually over consensus and are always subject to change depending on the people that … Read more

 The Development of Sociology in the United States: Summary

Introduction: Awareness of social problems and the skepticism towards dominant policies set by the government caused the development of pre-sociological approaches. Tackling traditional approaches and policies resulted in the process of trying to understand the issues and its effects that were brought about. Even before the recognition of the father of sociology’s work, Auguste Comte, … Read more

Capitalism and Communism: A Comparative Analysis

Throughout history, various systems have been set to govern societies around the world. Capitalism and communism are the two most analyzed and debated systems that affect the economy and society in very different ways. They are concepts that can be analyzed through a multitude of disciplines. This paper attempts to draw a comparative analysis between … Read more

6 Complementary Perspectives in Sociology: Explained with Examples

Sociology as an academic discipline is composed of various theories and resultant perspectives by which we explain and understand our social world. This paper will seek to list out and examine the different complementary perspectives in sociology, and assess the ways in which they are relevant to the study of societies. Introduction to Sociological Perspectives … Read more