Social Mobility Meaning
Social mobility is a concept as elusive as it seems obvious. It refers to changes or movements between social positions. Economists measure it in terms of income while sociologists focus on occupational status, but a general definition would be,” the movement or opportunities for movement between different social classes or occupational groups.”
Notes on India
Meaning and Notes on Indian Stratification
The word ‘stratification’ is synonymous with the terms ‘ranking’ and ‘differentiation’. The term essentially comes from the Latin word ‘Stratum’ referring to identifiable layers of sediment in the group
‘Caste’ in a similar manner, derives its origin from the Portuguese word ‘Casta’ signifying ‘race’.
Caste is a very conspicuous and, in many ways an integral part of the Indian stratified society. It is, however, a closed system, which indicates that there is very little to no change in social positions. Members of a caste achieve their social position at the time of birth and it remains the same (with little alterations) throughout their lives.The Indian society was divided into the Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra sects during the Rig Vedic period:●The BRAHMANAS represented the priestly class and were at the top of the hierarchy.●The KSHATRIYAS or the royal class came next and fought wars, taking care of the defence of the area. This segment of society was advised by the Brahmanas on important matters.●After the Kshatriyas came the VAISHYAS, who represented the business class or the merchant section.●The lowest or the most downtrodden section was the SHUDRA, which was considered as an untouchable caste and was supposed to serve all the other higher caste.The situation in India today shows that the then flexible caste system has now become rigid and complex with various sub-castes and ethnic groups.There are caste based marriages followed by civil and religious privileges and disablities. This hinders the process of nation building and a general appreciation in the feeling of brotherhood.Thus Caste, which was initially an occupation based system of differentiation has now become rigid and inflexible creating obstacles in the process of social bonding and integration.