Due to the French Revolution ,The end of feudalism was happened and it resulted in new changes not only in French but also in other Europe societies .Ideas like liberty,fraternity,and equality in indian constitiution orginated from the French revolution .
THE FRENCH SOCIETY WAS DIVIDED FEUDAL INTO ESTATES.
french revolution:The Structure of the feudal French Society comprised the three estates,
Estates in the sense,a system of stratification found in feudal European societies whereby one section or estate is dstinguised from other in terns of status ,privileges, and restrictions.
A) The First estate ,it was stratified into higher clergy like cardinal , the archbishops, the bishops and he abbots,
B) The second estate it consists of the nobility,the nobles of the robe were nobles not by birth but by title.They were the magistrates and judges .Among thses nobles,some were very progressive and liberal as they had moved in their positions from coomon citizens who belonged to the third estate,and the nobles of the sword were big landlords,like can be compared to the formely zamindars in india.
C) The third Estate ,compressed with the rest of the society and also included the the mercants,peasants,the artisans,and others,Three estates had vast differences,the king,in order to maintain the good will of the other two estates ,the clery and the nobility ,continued to exploit poor.
As compared to the peaasants ,the conditions of the middle classes,also known as the bourgeoisie comparising the mercants ,bankers,lawyers,manufactures etc,these are also included in third estates but these were mucn better.
French society political and economic aspects version
French had monarchy king ,and he is the ling ruled French about two-hundred yers ,The kings of the Bourbon dynasty ruled france.Here rules ,income,laws, orders everything were different from each regions,it giving rises to confusin and arbitrariness,Total power uder control of the king and his nobles ,Because of Louis XIV france had become brankrupt ,since he made costly wars and ruined the country economy ,after his died country had become brankrupt ,when Louis XV come into power,he kept on borrowing money from bankers ,his famous sentences “After me the deluge”and Louis XVI ,a very weak and his wife qeen marie Antoinette well known for her expensive habits,she is very famous for her reply when poor French people come and asking for bread ,”she told the people that,if you don’t have bread ,eat cake”.
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS IN FRANCE.
MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755) ,LOCKE (1632-1704),VOLTAIRE (1694-1778) AND ROUSSEAU(1712-1778)
Were the great philosophers ideas made French people to think .
MONTESQUIEU in his book ,The SPIRIT OF THE LAWS, Told that there should not be any all authorities at one place like judicial,executive,legislative and he also believed in the theory of the separation of powers and the liberty of the individuals
He also said certain that certain rights should be there for people like
1.right to live.
2.right to property.
3.the right to personal freedom.
He also believed that any ruler who took away thses rights from his people should be removed from the seat of power and replaced by another ruler who is able o protect thses rights.
VOLTAIRE stood for the rights of individuals,for freedom of speech and expression.
ROUSSEAU told in this book ,THE SOCIAL CONTRACT ,That people’s rights should be sovereign.
Now lets study major events took place during revolution.
1.On 20th june 1789 when a meeting was to be held in the hall at Versailles near paris ,the members found that it was closed and guarded by the king’s men.Therefore ,the National Assembly members led by their leaders bailey went to the next building which was an indoor tennis court .An oath to draw a new constitution for france ,this oath which marks the beginning of the French revolution is popularly known as the oath of the tennis court.
2.On july 14th,1789,this day is celebrated in france its Independence day ,due to the shortage of food and the dismissal of a very popular minister called necker,the mobs of paris rebelled against the ruling class,especially the king .
3.All the opposite rights on people by king was abolished ,and Declaration of Rights of amn by the constituent assembly ,it was happened between the age of 1789 and 1791,
According to Declaration ‘all men were born and remain equal before law .They have a right to choose their government and to resist oppression,personal liberty becomes a right given to all individuals’.
4.in 1791 france king tried to escape from country ,but he got caught at the frontier because he was a virtual prisoner.
5.In Paris ,the new legislative assembly (1791-1792) was formed .it comprised two radical groups ,namely the girondin and the Jacobin ,.Thses groups considered the king a traitor and were in favour of establishing a republic.
6.The King ,Lousis XVI was beheaded in public on 21st January 1793,later on the same year queen beheaded after being proved guilty of treason and france was declared a republic.
7.Reign of Terror took place in france ,in this period several of the nobles ,prests,some of the revolutionaries themselves were beheaded.This period lasted for three years.
8.Directorate took place in 1795,it lasted for four years ,after arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte was a young artillery officer from Corsica ,overthrew the Directorate in 1799,and became a new Director and and provided a much sought after stable government to the people of france,thus the French revolution ended with the over thrown of the Directorate by napoleon .
Conclusion :After French revolution there were many changes happened like economic,social in french and European societies and also changes like feudalism was replaced with democracy and the sociologists were interested to study the significant themes included the transformation of property,the social order,caused by the change in the political structure and its impact on the economic structure .A new class of power holders emerged –the bourgeoisie. In order to understand more about thses themes ,we need to look out the details of industrial revolutioread industrial revolution for better understanding