PARALLEL DESCENT: Every community in a society follows some set pattern in which a hierarchical process of giving some amount of money or land is observed in the same lineage. It also accounts for the basic relationship between parents and off-springs. From early times it has been observed that there is two kind of descent in society viz. Patrilineal and Matrilineal descent.
In Patrilineal descent, there is a transference of property from a fatherly figure to the lineage of their off-spring irrespective of gender. For example, in early times it was a popular concept of giving the property to sons only and daughters marriage consisted of every kind of gift but then she cannot claim that property. So the property division, in this case, is called as Parallel Descent.
Of Matrilineal descent, there is property transference from mother’s side to daughters only. For example before marriage or after marriage, a mother giving any amount of money to daughter comes under this category and popularly known as Alternate Descent. This concept was first theoretically recognized and studied by Nimuendaju in 1939.
The type of operation of descent in society depends on the family relationships. For example, there are some families in which there is not a set norm to transfer property into daughter’s name then that family will follow their arbitrary rule. On the other hand, if there is a family which has greater belongingness from each and every side, then there is a cognatic descent which means there is property transference to both the genders from any figure of the family. Then there is another example in which due to descent thing in families and property share there is indifference between brother and sister of the same family.
Coming to the recent times, in India at the time of 2005 the descent period came to an end. The Supreme Court released the orders for the division of ancestral property in both the genders ending the descent system.