(a) Write Short Notes on Citizenship and Globalization
Citizenship is defined as the legal status of membership in a state. A modern state provides certain rights to the citizens and expects citizens to perform specific duties. In ‘Citizenship and social class,’ TH Marshall analyzed citizenship development as a development of civil, political, and social rights in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, respectively. It has two aspects:
a)Basis of access to citizenship
b)Quality of citizenship rights
– jus sanguine and jus soli
With Globalization – we see a more unrestricted movement of people, trade, and investment. It blurs the boundaries between nations and creates ‘Global citizens.’
Dual citizenship as a concept has gained ground.
The European Union has demonstrated the concept of an economic and political union, that, while retaining the sovereignty of individual states, allows uncontrolled movement of people using the shengen visa.
One can work, reside, and derive income from different nation-states, thus becoming a true global citizen. However, globalization is also facing a backlash with increasing protectionism and stricter immigration laws.
Thus, while globalization seeks to blur the concept of citizenship, it has stoked ethnic and nationalist sentiments to preserve the same.
Explain the relationship between the nation-state and citizenship. Why has the nation-state become the most common arena for government?
The nation is defined as a group of people cohesively attached due to belonging to one race, language, religion, culture, geography, etc. A nation may or may not be sovereign. When a nation achieves political unity, it becomes a nation-state.
A state is only a political union, and citizenship is the legal status of membership in a state. A state may consist of one or more nations—for example, India. And a country may be split across two or more states- South Korea and North Korea. However, migration and the rise of multiculturalism are now challenging this notion. However, the nation-state has become a standard arena for governed because:
(1) Historical factors – The Balkanization fall of the USSR were based on a nation-state concept.
(2) Common social and national identity – similar aspirations and easier to govern.
(3) Less social tensions due to cohesiveness and similarity.
(4) Belief that only a nation-state of their own can protect and help them develop.
However, India, a democracy with multiple nations, and West Asia, with multiple states despite standard Arab nationality present two contrasting yet equally stable models of government.