Indian Sociologist Yogendra Singh is the founder of the Centre for the study of social systems. He is also a professor of Sociology at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi he is a professor since 1971. On 2nd November 1932 in Jamindar family in Basti district, Uttar Pradesh he took birth. He acquired Masters and a Ph.D. degree from Lucknow University.
After completing his Ph.D. he worked at the Institute of Social Sciences in Agra. Later in Rajasthan University and started a new Department of Sociology with the support of T.K.N Unnithan and Indra Deva. He was also a professor at the University of Jodhpur. Yogendra follows simple, creative and humanist principles and that is also shown in his writings.
He is also part of research advisory committee of Planning Commission and ICSSR plus a convener of the UGC national panel of Sociology. He also acted as a President of Indian Sociological society. He has contributed a lot in the field of Sociology and anthropology.
Yogendra Singh is not a functionalist, not even a Marxist. For the study of social stratification, he uses the structural function, structural history, structuralism, cultural and Marxist orientations. He used an integrated approach to study and analyze social stratification, modernization, and transformation of Indian society.
Yogendra Singh Works:
- 1973 Modernization of Indian Tradition.
- 1977 Essays in Modernization
- 1978 Social Stratification and Social Change in India
- 1984 Image of Man: Ideology and Theory in Indian Sociology
- 1987 Indian Sociology: Social Conditioning and Emerging concerns.
- 1993 Social Change in India: Crisis and Resilience.
- 1991 The Sociology of Culture
- 2004 Ideology and Theory in Indian Sociology
- 2000 Culture Change in India: Identity and Globalization
- 1978 Social Aspects of Scientific and Technological Revolution as co-author
His writing is evolved around the topics such as Social stratification, Social changes, Indian sociology, Modernization, cultural changes etc.
Yogendra Singh on Social Stratification:
Social stratification means when the society is divided into classes in a hierarchy order. Ones who are on a higher rank enjoy all the resources such as money and power. Singh provides the basis for research and uses essential and theoretical issues to understand social stratification.
In 1950’s and 1970’s Singh held studies on social stratification and social changes. In ICSSR report on social stratification, he says that theoretically, most studies come up with the answer of ‘what’ and ‘how’ about the prevailing phenomena. Then he says it also requires an answer to the question ‘why’ with regards to the need of ranking in society. He also goes on talking about what will it be and what its impact will be these questions are raised in regards to the changing processes.
As an output, no one was able to reach the answer to ‘why’ by producing proper theories regarding social stratification.
Singh reviews sociology of Social stratification on India focusing on these units:
- Caste system and social stratification
- Class structure and social stratification.
Yogendra Singh on Caste system:
Singh carried a study on caste and power in 1969 on caste and power structure of rural society. He conducted a study on caste and its changing types and functions and applying the system in Indian social stratification.
The caste system is seen as status in social stratification in the sociology of Indian society stratification. Stratification of society causes differences among each other in terms of wealth and power.
Yogendra Singh on Class structure:
Social stratification has a caste element which is somehow connected to caste stratification to discover a proper conceptual difference should be understood. Singh says that there are series of over layering structures exist in an indian society that accounts from ethnic groups to caste to class without being recognized clearly.
Yogendra Singh on Social change:
Singh discusses social change as an ideology. He said sanskritization and westernization is a truth asserting concept. All the concepts are characterized by Singh like sanskritization, parochialization, westernization, universalization, rural-urban continuum, little and great traditions are a great contribution to the knowledge of Sociology.
Yogendra Singh’s monograph is a profound example of the Modernization of Indian Tradition 1973 which have many insights into Indianization of Indian sociology in which views of the west was tried to be expelled out.
Singh also discusses that studies on social change where studied in separate groups meaning at regional or local level but not India as a whole.
For Indian sociological production of these concepts of social change find an inception somewhere in last 19th century through the writings of the British and Indian scholars. Later these concepts were understood and differentiated and several approaches took place.
Yogendra Singh on Modernization:
Modernization is a complex concept and it is also said to be an ideological concept. Modernization revolves around the choice of ideologies. Book on Essays on Modernization in India Singh analyzed the different and complex process of modernization in India. India has a dynamic nation and compound civilization.
The concept of modernization raises unclear feelings and harsh reactions among people. It has different dimensions and it is a process of ramification so these are varied and complex.
His book analyzes all the questions that blossom in someone’s mind regarding social, comparative historical and structural perspectives. The integrated approach has led the writer to show how important can be theories of modernization that they leave the concept of history and ideology its analysis.
Yogendra Singh on Cultural change:
Cultural changes have not gained that much attention from sociologist as other social processes and structure. The essays on Culture change in India, identity, and Globalization by Yogendra Singh had focused on the importance of the cultural change in India. The essays mentioned in this volume are mainly focused on today’s themes of cultural changes of India.
These changes might be classified into two types:
1. those who are concerned with the real structure of culture and links with the social institution.
2. Those who are concerned with the processes of change in culture.
Singh says globalization is that which has increased the scope of cultural changes through interaction across the globe.
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