What is the Meaning of Kidney, Liver, Heart and Lung, Pancreas Transplantation
Kidney Transplantation: Diabetes mellitus, Hign Blood Pressure, and Primary Kidney diseases including Congenital, Hereditary, Parenchymal, and Obstruction may ultimately cause Kidney failure. When the Function of the Kidneys becomes as low as 10%, the state is called End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) , lifelong dialysis is the treatment options for ESRD patients.
Children, early transplantation is preferred. Transplantation is deferred in severe heart, liver, lung diseases, Infectious diseases like AIDS, Hepatitis and Cancers. Transplantation from a live donor requires thorough investigations to make sure that he/she is not suffering from any illness.
Blood Group Compatibility is essential in selecting the donor. Cross match test is done just prior to Transplantation.Donor and recipient surgeries are done simultaneously. Donor Kidney is placed inside the lower abdomen and not in the position of the native kidneys. Its artery is anastomosed to the internal iliac artery , vein to external iliac vein and ureter to recipients urinary bladder. Transplanted kidney will usually start functioning immediately producing large amounts of urine.
Lifelong Periodic Checkup is Indispensable after discharge from the hospital. The rate of survival of the graft after one year is 95% in case of live donation and 90% for graft from deceased donors.Rarely complication such as rejection, infection, malignancies and irreversible loss of graft function may occur.
Graft in the sense Organ
Liver Transplantation: Unlike the Kidneys, a part of a liver from living donors or whole organ from a deceased donor is transplanted in a case of liver failure.
Acute liver failure or chronic liver disease going for end-stage is the usual indications for the liver transplantation. Contraindications include non-correctable heart and lung disease, malignancy alcohol and drug abuse.
This is useful for patients who remain symptomatic even after optimum medical therapy. Usual indicating are Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy and Coronary Artery Disease, it is contraindicated if their life expectancy is less than 2 years due to noncardiac illness, severe lung, kidney and liver diseases, infections like AIDS and other multi-organ diseases. The most important aspect here is to minimize the heart transportation time to donor site maximum within four hours.
The Organs like Lungs and Pancreas are not so commonly transplanted in our country.In a case of more than one organ failure, commendable multiple or dual organ transplantations can be also be considered, but the success commendable as very few cases have been tried as to date.