PENOLOGY: Francis Lieber was the sociologist who coined the term penology which means punishment for criminals. Sociology has many branches in which there is a criminology branch which studies the actions and thought the process of a criminal mind. to say in simple words it means deciding penalty charges for the person is guilty.
its main function is to prevent criminal offenses by setting a standard bar of giving huge punishment. For example when someone is found guilty of stealing money then there is set norm of punishment. This practice demotivates the idea of criminology and thus acts as maintaining righteous things in the society.
Another major function of penology is to look after the criminal’s mind when he is in prison to avoid further crimes. The insecurities and reason behind any crime are studied in detail by the psychologist. For example, if someone has harmed a person to the level of death, he is assisted in such a manner that after being out of jail he does not repeat the same thing with anybody.
Penology in small-scale or say in informal activities is seen at workplaces, schools, and home. For example, if a child has done something in wrong then the child is given a right direction and punishment too if needed. Penology section takes care of the mental health of a person.
ROLE OF PENOLOGY:-
It is being practiced at every corner of the world but the amount of punishment and its level varies from places to places. For example, in Saudi Arab, the punishment assigned for rape is the collective killing of culprit at roads by commoners. But in many countries, for example, India has a rule of punishing culprit for seven years in the jail. Only the rarest of the rare cases result in hanging. The whole function of penology is to discard the idea of potential crimes.